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 Post subject: Re: Did 9:5 abrogate 124 verses?
PostPosted: 21 Feb 2010, 20:38 
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One more verse claimed abrogated by the sword verse is

Ibn Al-Jawzi reports that the claim was made by Ibn Abbaas and Qataada. He writes,

ذكر الآية الثانية: قوله تعالى "فإنما عليك البلاغ وعلينا الحساب". روى علي بن أبي طلحة عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما أن قوله "فإنما عليك البلاغ" نسخ بآية السيف وفرض الجهاد، وكذلك قال قتادة، وعلى ما سبق تحقيقة في مواضع من أنه ليس عليك أن تأتيهم بما يقترحون من الآيات إنما عليك أن تبلغ، تكون محكمة ولا يكون بينها وبين آية السيف منافات


He refutes the claim saying that the meaning of the verse is that the Prophet's job (PBUH) is conveying the message and that does not preclude fighting when necessary.

I'd add that the claim seems to overlook the first part of the verse, which clearly states that the timing and decision about the disbelievers is totally up to God. One of those timed decisions was the order to fight the polytheists when that order was made later, so where is the abrogation?

I'd also add that the verse uses the "confinement construct" (أسلوب القصر) to further emphasize its teaching, so how can an emphasized statement get abrogated later?

Who said what:
For:
Ibn Abbaas,
Qataada,
Ibn Salaama (who claimed there was consensus for this claim).

Against:
Ibn Al-Jawzi,
Abu-Abdillah Shu`la (implied),
Dr. Mustafa Zayd.

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 Post subject: Re: Did 9:5 abrogate 124 verses?
PostPosted: 21 Feb 2010, 21:25 
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Similar to the the cases in this post, Ibn Al-Jawzi reports that many exegetes claimed that

was abrogated by the sword verse. Here is what he wrote about it,

باب ذكر الآيات اللواتي ادعي عليهن النسخ في سورة الحجر. ذكر الآية الأولى: قوله تعالى "ذرهم يأكلوا ويتمتعوا ويلههم الأمل فسوف يعلمون". قد زعم كثير من المفسرين أنها منسوخة بآية السيف. والتحقيق أنها وعيد وتهديد وذلك لا ينافي قتالهم فلا وجه للنسخ


Who said what:
For:
Ibn Hazm Al-Andalusi, Ibn Salaama and Al-`Ataa'iqi (according to Dr. Al-Husayni).

Against:
Ibn Al-Jawzi,
Abu-Abdillah Shu`la,
Dr. Mustafa Zayd,
Dr. M. Ibrahim Faaris.

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 Post subject: Re: Did 9:5 abrogate 124 verses?
PostPosted: 21 Feb 2010, 21:31 
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Another verse claimed abrogated by the sword verse is

as Ibn Al-Jawzi reports,

ذكر الآية الثانية: قوله تعالى "فاصفح الصفح الجميل". أخبرنا ابن المبارك بن علي قال أبنا أحمد بن الحسين بن قريش قال أبنا البرمكي قال أبنا محمد بن إسماعيل بن العباس قال قال أبنا أبو بكر بن أبي داود بنا عقبة عن إسرائيل عن جابر عن مجاهد وعكرمة "فاصفح الصفح الجميل"، قال هذا قبل القتال. قال أبو بكر وبنا موسى بن هارون قال بنا الحسين قال بنا شيبان عن قتادة "فاصفح الصفح الجميل" قال نسخ هذا بعد فقال "واقتلوهم حيث ثقفتموهم"
اهـ


The claim was made by Mujaahid, `Ikrima and Qataada. Ibn Al-Jawzi does not refute it.

I'd simply say that pardoning in a beautiful manner, which was the character of the Prophet (PBUH), does not contradict fighting back those who fight us. Militancy of the offenders is where the red line is drawn.

Who said what:
For:
Qataada, Mujaahid, `Ikrima,
Ibn Abbaas and Ad-Dhahhaak (according to Aş-Şa`di),
Ibn Katheer (according to Dr. Zayd),
Ibn Salaama,
Al-Khazraji,
An-Nahhaas.

Against:
At-Tabari (implied, according to Dr. Zayd),
Al-Qurtubi (according to Dr. Al-Husayni),
Abu-Abdillah Shu`la,
Dr. Mustafa Zayd.

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 Post subject: Re: Did 9:5 abrogate 124 verses?
PostPosted: 21 Feb 2010, 21:37 
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This one is particularly strange. Ibn Al-Jawzi reports that some people said that

was abrogated by the sword verse. He wrote,

ذكر الآية الثالثة: قوله تعالى "لا تمدن عينيك إلى ما متعنا به أزواجا منهم ولا تحزن". قد زعم قوم أن هذا كان قبل أن يؤمر بقتالهم ثم نسخ بآية السيف. وهذا ليس بشيء لأن المعنى لا تحزن عليهم إن لم يؤمنوا، وقيل لا تحزن بم أنعمت عليهم في الدنيا، ولا وجه للنسخ، وكذلك قال أبو الوفاء ابن عقيل. قد ذهب بعضهم إلى أن هذه الآية منسوخة بآية السيف وليس بصحيح


If this verse is abrogated then the Prophet (PBUH) is not even supposed to feel sorry for polytheists that they did not believe! Ibn Al-Jawzi explains that simple meaning and offers another explanation, also offered by Abul-Wafaa' ibn Aqeel, namely, "do not feel bad that I gave them much in this world."

Dr. Mustafa Zayd, in his book النسخ في القرآن الكريم, volume 2, pages 70-71 (item 790), mentions a sweet interpretation of 15:88 by Ibn `Uyayna. He said that the verse means "Covet the Quran instead of wealth!" His evidence is the preceding verse,

He quotes someone saying,
من أوتي القرآن فرأى أن أحدا أعطي أفضل مما أعطى، فقد عظم صغيرا وصغر عظيما

Translation: Whoever has been given the Quran then thought that another was given better than him, has aggrandized a trivial matter and trivialized a grand matter.

Who said what:
For:
Ibn Salaama, in his book الناسخ والمنسوخ في القرآن الكريم, page 76.

Against:
At-Tabari (implied, says Dr. Zayd),
Abul-Wafaa' ibn `Aqeel (according to ibn Al-Jawzi),
Ibn Al-Jawzi,
Dr. Mustafa Zayd.

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 Post subject: Re: Did 9:5 abrogate 124 verses?
PostPosted: 21 Feb 2010, 22:14 
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Another strange case of claiming abrogation by the sword verse is


Ibn Al-Jawzi writes,

ذكر الآية الرابعة: قوله تعالى "وقل إني أنا النذير المبين". زعم بعضهم أن معناها نسخ بآية السيف، لأن المعنى عنده اقتصر على الإنذار، وهذا خيال فاسد لأنه ليس في الآية ما يتضمن هذا، ثم هي خبر فلا وجه للنسخ


He puts down the claim harshly. The argument of the claimant is that the meaning of the verse "Do not do other than warn", but, Ibn Al-Jawzi insists that the verse doesn't say that and that it is, in addition, a statement and statements cannot be abrogated.

I respectfully disagree with his latter argument. The verse is a command to make a statement, so it can in theory be abrogated. In addition, the meaning of the verse is clearly, "Say, O Muhammad, 'I am the clear warner'" which of course he was. To abrogate that is to order the Prophet to withdraw that statement or to say that he was no longer a clear warner, which did not happen and is absurd.

Ibn Salaama, in his book الناسخ والمنسوخ في القرآن الكريم, page 77, does it again and says that this verse is abrogated in meaning, not in words, by the sword verse!

Who said what:
For:
Ibn Salaama.

Against:
Ibn Al-Jawzi,
Dr. Mustafa Zayd.

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 Post subject: Re: Did 9:5 abrogate 124 verses?
PostPosted: 22 Feb 2010, 00:56 
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Ibn Al-Jawzi reports that Ibn Abbaas said that

was among those abrogated by the sword verse. He wrote,

الآية الخامسة: قوله تعالى "وأعرض عن المشركين". أخبرنا ابن ناصر قال أبنا ابن أيوب قال أبنا ابن شاذان قال أبنا أبو بكر النجاد قال أبو داود السجستاني قال بنا أحمد بن محمد قال حدثت عن معاوية بن صالح عن علي بن أبي طلحة عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما "وأعرض عن المشركين" قال نسختها "فاقتلوا المشركين حيث وجدتموهم". أخبرنا المبارك بن علي قال بنا أحمد بن الحسين قال أبنا البرمكي قال أبنا محمد بن إسماعيل قال أبنا أبو بكر بن أبي داود قال بنا محمد بن سعد قال حدثني أبي عن الحسين بن الحسن بن عطية عن أبيه عن عطية عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما "وأعرض عن المشركين" قال هذا من المنسوخ


The claim is without merit because turning aside from the polytheist does not preclude fighting them back when they attack. The two verses, 15:94 and 9:5 complement each other, not contradict each other. Taken together, as all verses of the Quran should be, they mean, "Ignore the polytheist unless they physically attack you, then you will have to fight them back."

Who said what:
For:
Ibn Abbaas,
Ad-Dhahhaak (according to Aş-Şa`di),
Ibn Salaama,
Muhammad ibn Al-Mutahhar (according to Dr. Al-Husayni).

Against:
Abu-Ali (Al-Jabaa'i?) (according to Aş-Şa`di),
Abu-Abdillah Shu`la,
Aş-Şa`di (implied),
Dr. Mustafa Zayd.

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 Post subject: Re: Did 9:5 abrogate 124 verses?
PostPosted: 22 Feb 2010, 01:28 
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Another verse claimed abrogated by the sword verse is

said many exegetes according to Ibn Al-Jawzi who wrote,

ذكر الآية الثانية: قوله تعالى "فإن تولوا فإنما عليك البلاغ المبين". قال كثير من المفسرين إنها منسوخة بآية السيف وقد بينا في نظائرها أنه لا حاجة بنا إلى ادعاء النسخ في مثل هذه


He says there is no need to claim abrogation here as he showed before for similar verses.

Who said what:
For:
Ibn Salaama, in his book الناسخ والمنسوخ في القرآن الكريم, page 78.

Against:
Ibn Al-Jawzi,
Abu-Abdillah Shu`la (implied),
Dr. Mustafa Zayd.

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 Post subject: Re: Did 9:5 abrogate 124 verses?
PostPosted: 22 Feb 2010, 01:42 
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Another verse claimed by many exegetes to have been abrogated by the sword verse, according to Ibn Al-Jawzi, is


He writes,

ذكر الآية الثالثة: قوله تعالى "وجادلهم بالتي هي أحسن". اختلف المفسرون في هذه الآية على أربعة أقوال:
الأول أن المعنى جادلهم بالقرآن.
الثاني بلا إله إلا الله، والقولان عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما.
والثالث أعرض عن أذاهم إياك. أخبرنا عبد الوهاب الأنماطي قال أبنا أبو طاهر قال أبنا ابن شاذان قال أبنا عبد الرحمن بن الحسن قال أبنا إبراهيم الحسين قال أبنا آدم قال بنا ورقاء عن ابن أبي نجيح عن مجاهد "وجادلهم بالتي هي أحسن" قال يقول أعرض عن أذاهم إياك.
والرابع جادلهم غير فظ ولا غليظ وألن لهم جانبك، قاله الزجاج.
وقد ذهب كثير من المفسرون إلى أن هذه الآية منسوخة بآية السيف. وفيه بعد لأن المجادلة لا تنافي القتال، ولم يقل له اقتصر على جدالهم، فيكون المعنى جادلهم فإن أبوا فالسيف فلا يتوجه نسخ


Ibn Al-Jawzi refutes the claim with the simple argument that arguing with the polytheists in a nice manner does not preclude fighting them, because God did not say only argue. He concludes that the two verses work together by meaning: Argue with them nicely but if they refuse then it's the sword.

With all due respect, that is a terrible explanation. The sword verse was not revealed so that the polytheists who do not accept Islam be fought and killed; it was revealed to let Muslims know that there shall be no new treaties with the polytheists and that any polytheists who continue to fight Muslims after the last grace period must be fought and killed, unless they seek refuge with the Muslims or accept Islam. The understanding that the polytheists are given two choices: accept Islam or die is a horrendous understanding, unwarranted by Chapter 9, and one wrongly held by too many prominent scholars it seems.

Abu-Abdillah Shu`la, in his book صفوة الراسخ في علم المنسوخ والناسخ, page 150, offers a very simple refutation of this claim: he says that God never instructed the Prophet (PBUH) to be rude in arguing! That would have been an abrogation of 16:125.

Who said what:
For:
Many exegetes, said Ibn Al-Jawzi,
Abu-Ja`far An-Nahhaas (quoted by Dr. Zayd),
Ibn Salaama,
An-Nahhaas and Al-`Ataa'iqi (according to Dr. Al-Husayni).

Against:
At-Tabari (implied by his exegesis, quoted by Dr. Zayd),
Ibn Al-Jawzi,
Makki,
Abu-Abdillah Shu`la,
Dr. Mustafa Zayd.

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 Post subject: Re: Did 9:5 abrogate 124 verses?
PostPosted: 22 Feb 2010, 02:33 
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Linguistic wrote:
ذكر الآية الثالثة: قوله تعالى "لا تمدن عينيك إلى ما متعنا به أزواجا منهم ولا تحزن". قد زعم قوم أن هذا كان قبل أن يؤمر بقتالهم ثم نسخ بآية السيف.

Let me be cynical here and argue that perhaps someone wanted a justification to "extend their eyes to what God made others enjoy."

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 Post subject: Re: Did 9:5 abrogate 124 verses?
PostPosted: 22 Feb 2010, 02:40 
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Linguistic wrote:
Another verse claimed by many exegetes to have been abrogated by the sword verse, according to Ibn Al-Jawzi, is

One of my favorite verses. It not only directs us about how to debate religion, but also takes away the 'holier than thou' attitude by reminding us that it is God who knows who is right and who is wrong. I can see why some would rather see it abrogated.

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