Al-Ghaali, in his book بالحجة والبرهان لا نسخ في القرآن, pages 107-113, reports this case, which is rarely mentioned elsewhere. The claim is that
was abrogated by the hadeeth,
عن أبي هريرة يقول نهى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أن يجمع بين المرأة وخالتها وبين المرأة وعمتها. أخرجه البخاري ومسلم
Translation: A woman shall not be married together with her maternal or paternal aunt.
The claim is that this hadeeth abrogates the part of 4:24 that says وأحل لكم ما وراء ذلكم
(And it is made lawful for you whatever is beyond that).
Ibn Al`Arabi rejects the abrogation claim saying that it is an example of specification, not abrogation. Ibn Al-Jawzi and Ash-Shawkaani and Dr. Mustafa Zayd agreed.
Husaam Al-Ghaali, in his book بالحجة والبرهان لا نسخ في القرآن, quotes M. Rasheed Ridha who rejects the claim but also rejects the notion that this is a case of specification. His argument is that the verse enumerates which women may not be married for an inherent reason, such as kinship and suckling; it does not talk about circumstantial reasons that forbid marrying a woman, which is what the hadeeth talks about. In other words, a man can marry a woman or her aunt but not both at the same time. Thus, the hadeeth complements the verse rather than abrogates it. This is the most sensible explanation to me.
He also quotes his teacher, Imaam Muhammad Abduh, saying that the enumerated list of forbidden women is a sample that is extended by analogy. For instance, mothers also imply grandmothers, daughters also imply nieces. His view is that the verse is a brief (مجمل) which the Sunna has detailed. He says that the reason those enumerated women were specifically mentioned is because it was a common practice in pre-Islamic era.
Al-Ghaali then quotes in full what Ar-Raazi said about this claim refuting it. I found all his arguments very labored. Interestingly, Al-Khawaarij faction ("the defectors"), rejected the notion that this is a case of specification, but they also rejected taking any hadeeth as abrogating the Quran.
Two more opinions were mentioned. As-Suddi said that "whomever beyond that" means up to four. Ibn Katheer found that weak. Qataada said the phrase means bond maidens.