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 Post subject: Did 9:5 or 3:104 abrogate 5:105 or did it abrogate itself?
PostPosted: 11 Feb 2010, 00:51 
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Ibn Al-Jawzi reports that this verse,

has been claimed abrogated by the sword verse by some and by the part of it that says "if you are guided." Still others, such as Ibn Hazm Al-Andalusi and Ibn Salaama, said it was abrogated by the imperatives to "command the recognizable and forbid the objectionable", e.g., in


This is what Ibn Al-Jawzi wrote about it,

ذكر الآية الثامنة: قوله تعالى "عليكم أنفسكم لا يضركم من ضل إذا اهتديتم". للعلماء فيها قولان:

الأول أنها منسوخة. قال أرباب هذا القول هي تتضمن كف الأيدي عن قتال الضالين فنسخت، ولهم في ناسخها قولان: الأول آية السيف، والثاني أن آخرها نسخ أولها، قال أبو عبيد القاسم بن سلام ليس في القرآن أية جمعت الناسخ والمنسوخ غير هذه، وموضوع المنسوخ منها إلى قوله "لا يضركم من ضل"، والناسخ قوله "إذا اهتديتم"، والهدى ها هنا الأمر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر. قلت وهذا الكلام إذا حقق لم يثبت.

والقول الثاني أنها محكمة قال الزجاج معناها إنما ألزمكم الله أمر أنفسكم لا يؤاخذكم بذنوب غيركم. قال وهذه الآية لا توجب ترك الأمر بالمعروف، لأن المؤمن إذا تركه وهو مستطيع له فهو ضال وليس بمهتد. قلت وهذا القول هو الصحيح، وأنها محكمة، ويدل على إحكامها أربعة أشياء:
الأول أن قوله "عليكم أنفسكم" يقتضي إغراء الإنسان بمصالح نفسه، ويتضمن الإخبار بأنه لا يعاقب بضلال غيره، وليس مقتضى ذلك أن لا نكرعلى غيره، وإنما غاية الأمر أن يكون ذلك مسكوتا عنه فيقف على الدليل.
والثاني أن الآية تدل على وجوب الأمر بالمعروف لأن قوله "عليكم أنفسكم" أمر بإصلاحها وأداء ما عليها، وقد ثبت وجوب الأمر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر، فصار من جملة ما على الإنسان في نفسه أن يأمر بالمعروف وينهى عن المنكر، وقد دل على ما قلنا قوله "إذا اهتديتم" وإنما يكون الإنسان مهتديا إذا امتثل أمر الشرع، ومما أمر الشرع به الأمر بالمعروف. وقد روى عن ابن مسعود والحسن وأبي العالية أنهم قالوا في هذه الآية قولوا ما قبل منكم فإذا رد عليكم فعليكم أنفسكم. أخبرنا ابن حصين قال أبنا ابن المذهب قال أبنا أحمد بن جعفر قال بنا عبد الله بن أحمد قال حدثني أبي قال بنا هاشم بن القاسم قال بنا زهير يعني ابن معاوية قال بنا إسماعيل بن أبي خالد قال بنا قيس قال قام أبو بكر رضي الله عنه فحمد الله وأثنى عليه قال يا أيها الناس إنكم تقرؤن هذه الآية "يا أيها الذين آمنوا عليكم أنفسكم لا يضركم من ضل إذا اهتديتم" إلى آخر الآية وأنكم تضعونها على غير موضعها، وإني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: إن الناس إذا رأوا المنكر ولايغيرونه أوشك الله عز وجل أن يعمهم بعقابه.
والثالث أن الآية قد حملها قوم على أهل الكتاب إذا أدوا الجزية، فحينئذ لا يلزمون بغيرها. فروى أبو صالح عن ابن عباس أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كتب إلى حجر وعليهم منذر بن ساوي يدعوهم إلى الإسلام فإن أبوا فليؤدوا الجزية، فلم أتاه الكتاب عرضه على من عنده من العرب واليهود والنصاري والمجوس فأقروا بالجزية وكرهوا الإسلام، فكتب إليه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم "أما العرب فلا تقبل منهم إلا الإسلام أو السيف، وأما أهل الكتاب والمجوس فاقبل منهم الجزية" فلما قرأوا الكتاب أسلمت العرب، وأعطى أهل الكتاب والمجوس الجزية، فقال المنافقون عجبا لمحمد يزعم أن الله بعثه ليقاتل الناس كافة حتى يسلموا، وقد قبل من مجوس هجر وأهل الكتاب الجزية، فهلا أكرههم على الإسلام وقد ردها على إخواننا من العرب. فشق ذلك على المسلمين فنزلت هذه الآية.
والرابع أنه لما عابهم في تقليد آبائهم بالآية المتقدمة، أعلمهم بهذه الآية أن المكلف إنما يلزمه حكم نفسه، وأنه لا يضره ضلال من ضل إذا كان مهتديا، حتى يعلموا أنه لا يلزمهم من ضلال آبائهم شيء من الذم والعقاب. وإذا تلمحت هذه المناسبة بين الآيتين لم يكن الأمر للأمر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر ها هنا مدخل، وهذا أحسن الوجوه في الآية


He favors the interpretation that the verse means that Muslims are not blamed for anybody's misguidance if they are themselves guided. That is because they were worried that they would be blamed for their fathers' disbelief.

The reason some thought this verse is abrogated is that they thought it talks about enjoining what's right and forbidding what's wrong. Abu-Bakr Aş-Şiddeeq, may God have been pleased with him, explained in a sermon that this is a wrong interpretation of the verse.

There is nothing in this verse that has been abrogated. It has only one command: عليكم أنفسكم (You are responsible for yourselves) and this is explained by the rest of the verse, "The disbelief of others will not hurt you if you are guided." This is consistent with the teaching repeated many times in the Quran, such as,


What I don't understand is why didn't anybody say that 5:105 has been abrogated by

Which may be interpreted to mean that the man is responsible for his family's sins. It doesn't mean that, of course. It means that a man has a responsibility to teach his wife and children to be good Muslims, but if they do not follow him, he will not be blamed for it if he has done all he could and has been a good role model for them. That is where إذا اهتديتم in 5:105 comes in, practicing what he preaches.

Makki says in his book الإيضاح, pages 237-238, that the majority opined that 5:105 is not abrogated. One interpretation by Ibn Mas`ood is that the verse means that a Muslim is to command the recognized and forbid the objectionable but if that falls on deaf ears, he is not responsible. Some scholars said that the time for this verse has not come yet.

Aş-Şa`di, in his book التبيان في الناسخ والمنسوخ في القرآن المجيد, pages 98-99, says that some people he did not name said that the meaning of the verse is that the misguidance of others does not harm you if you are guided. Isn't that obvious? Those people said therefore that the verse is not abrogated. His commentator, Dr. Abdullah Al-Husayni mentioned Az-Zajjaaj as one of those people.

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 Post subject: Re: Did 9:5 abrogate 5:105 or did it abrogate itself?
PostPosted: 11 Feb 2010, 01:49 
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Linguistic wrote:
Ibn Al-Jawzi reports that this verse, 5:105, has been claimed abrogated by the sword verse by some and by the part of it that says "if you are guided."

I think the claim that it was self-abrogated by the part that says "if you are guided" goes against so many basics that it begs the question: Was there an agenda to try to rid the Quran of any passage that can be remotely construed as tolerance?

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 Post subject: Re: Did 9:5 abrogate 5:105 or did it abrogate itself?
PostPosted: 23 Feb 2010, 07:24 
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Dr. Mostafa Zaid refutes this claim under the "statement of fact" section on pages 423-425 in volume 1 of his book. He mentions both possibilities of being self-abrogated and being abrogated by the sword verse. He also states that the claim of abrogation is based on the presumption that the verse does not require Muslims to spread Islam or to fight for it.

First, he quotes Abu-Bakr Al-Seddeeq, may God be pleased with him, specifically addressing that people misunderstand 5:105, and quoted the Prophet (PBUH) saying that if people saw evil and didn't change it, they are almost included in its punishment."

He then interprets 5:105, citing similar verses, to be comforting for Muslims who worry about the fate of others. He then argues that 5:105 cannot possibly be against fighting since it came much later than many verses that instituted the fighting requirement. He finally invokes the statement-of-fact argument.

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 Post subject: Did one part of 5:105 abrogate the first part?
PostPosted: 25 Apr 2010, 03:59 
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Ibn Hazm Al-Andalusi says in his book الناسخ والمنسوخ في القرآن الكريم that the first statement in

Was abrogated by the phrase إذا اهتديتم (when you are guided) that follows.

I can't see how that can be an abrogation and will not venture to guess.

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 Post subject: Re: Did one part of 5:105 abrogate the first part?
PostPosted: 05 Jun 2010, 02:36 
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For:
Ibn Abbaas (implied),
Abu-Tha`laba Al-Khashani, Ka`b and Abdullah ibn Mas`ood (implied by believing that the time for the verse had not yet come),
Ad-Dhahhaak (Ibn Salaam implied),
Al-Qaasim ibn Salaam,
Ibn Tabatabaa (according to Dr. Al-Husayni),
Ibn Hazm Al-Andalusi,
Ibn Salaama and his father,
Aş-Şa`di (implied).

Against:
The Prophet (PBUH), implied by a hadeeth, quoted by Ibn Salaama,
Abu-Bakr Aş-Şiddeeq,
Ibn Mas`ood, Al-Hasan and Abul-`Aaliya (implied),
Sa`eed ibn Jabeer and Mujaahid (implied, quoted by Ibn Salaam),
The majority, according to Makki,
Az-Zajjaaj (according to Ibn Al-Jawzi),
Ibn Al-Jawzi,
Abu-Abdillah Shu`la,
Ar-Raazi (according to Az-Zalmi),
Dr. Mustafa Zayd,
Dr. Az-Zalmi.

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 Post subject: Re: Did 9:5 or 3:104 abrogate 5:105 or did it abrogate itself?
PostPosted: 08 Sep 2010, 15:51 
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This is the last case discussed by Abu-`Ubayd Al-Qaasim ibn Salaam in his book الناسخ والمنسوخ في القرآن والسنة, pages 209-215. He lists it under a section entitled, "Commanding the recognizable and forbidding the objectionable, and the abrogation of neglecting them to strongly mandating them."

Clearly he and nearly everybody else he quoted misunderstood verse 5:105. The verse does not say to leave out the duty of commanding what is right and forbidding what is wrong. It says that we are responsible for our actions only, not others'. If we do our duty of calling people to the good and admonishing them from sin and they do not respond and continue in their error, then only they bear the consequences of their error; we've done our duty and we bear the consequences of our actions only.

Isn't that obvious? I'm puzzled by why it wasn't obvious to so many people. I can only guess that they thought that the clause عليكم أنفسكم meant to them to worry about themselves only. The clause is not a confinement construct (أسلوب قصر), therefore such interpretation is unwarranted. The clause simply means that the loss of others to misguidance will not spill over to us if we are guided, so we should worry about ourselves only in this regard. We are not going to be held responsible for their decision. That does not preclude calling them to righteousness and avoidance of evil.

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 Post subject: Re: Did 9:5 or 3:104 abrogate 5:105 or did it abrogate itself?
PostPosted: 27 Oct 2010, 19:40 
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Linguistic wrote:
I'm puzzled by why it wasn't obvious to so many people.

With all due respect to the distinguished scholars, IMHO the reason is that people have a strong desire to tell others what to do, and instructions that seem to get in the way of that are not particularly welcome.

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 Post subject: Re: Did 9:5 or 3:104 abrogate 5:105 or did it abrogate itself?
PostPosted: 08 Feb 2011, 22:21 
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Ibn Salaama, in his book الناسخ والمنسوخ في القرآن الكريم, page 57, accepts this claim and says that his father, Al-Qaasim, also does. Ironically, he cites a hadeeth, reported by At-Tirmizhi, Abu-Daawood and Ibn Maajah, where the Prophet (PBUH) chastises people for misunderstanding 5:105! He corrects their misunderstanding by saying, "By Him in whose Hand is my soul, you shall command the recognizable and forbid the objectionable, or else God will pervade you with His punishment, or you will supplicate but in vain!"

The claim of abrogation stems from misunderstanding. That is the case for all of them, IMHO, not just this one.

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