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 Post subject: Did 9:5, 9:29 or 8:58 abrogate 5:13?
PostPosted: 10 Feb 2010, 04:49 
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Another case about whether to pardon or fight.

Here are the verses of the claim,

is claimed to have been abrogated by

Or

Or


And here is what Ibn Al-Jawzi writes about it,

ذكر الآية الرابعة: قوله تعالى "فاعف عنهم واصفح". اختلف العلماء هل هذا منسوخ أم محكم على قولين:
الأول أنه منسوخ، قاله الأكثرون، ولهم في ناسخه ثلاثة أقوال:
الأول آية السيف. أخبرنا ابن ناصر قال أبنا ابن أيوب قال أبنا أبو علي بن شاذان قال بنا أبو بكر النجاد قال بنا أبو داود السجستاني قال بنا أحمد بن محمد قال حدثت عن معاوية بن صالح عن علي بن أبي طلحة عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما "فاعف عنهم"، "وإن تعفوا وتصفحوا"، ونحو هذا من القرآن نسخ كله بقوله "فاقتلوا المشركين حيث وجدتموهم".
والثاني "قاتلوا الذين لا يؤمنون بالله". أخبرنا إسماعيل بن أحمد قال أبنا عمر بن عبيد الله قال أبنا ابن بشران قال أبنا إسحاق بن أحمد قال أبنا عبد الله بن أحمد بن حنبل قال حدثني أبي قال ابن عبد الرزاق قال بن معمر عن قتادة "فاعف عنهم واصفح" قال نسختها قوله تعالى "قاتلوا الذين لا يؤمنون بالله ولا باليوم الآخر".
والثالث "وإما تخافن من قوم خيانة".
والقول الثاني أنه محكم قال بعض المفسرين نزلت في قوم كان بينهم وبين النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم عهد فغدروا وأرادوا قتل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وأظهره الله عليهم ثم أنزل هذه الآية ولم تنسخ. قال ابن جرير يجوز أن يعفي عنهم في غدرة فعلوها ما لم ينصبوا حربا ولم يمتنعوا من أداء الجزية والإقرار بالصغار فلا يتوجه النسخ


In the above write-up, Ibn Al-Jawzi does not offer his own opinion on the case. He quotes several opinions of the scholars, who differ on whether there is abrogation here and what the abrogating verse is.

9:5 does not apply at all, since 9:5 speaks about the polytheists, while 5:13 speaks of the Jews. Also, see the topic "Did 9:5 abrogate 124 verses?" for additional discussion on 9:5.

9:29 does apply because it refers to the People of the Book. However, it applies to those of them who are under Muslim rule, and we explained before why that is a special situation in terms of defense tax. See additional discussion about it in the topic, "Did 9:29 abrogate 9:5?".
Furthermore, 5:13 does not prohibit taking a defense tax and 9:29 does not tell Muslims to stop pardoning the People of the Book after they agree to pay the defense tax.

As for 8:58, it does not say that Muslims should stop pardoning the Jews, who are the ones referred to in 5:13; it only says that if Muslims who have a peace treaty with any folk have a strong reason to suspect that the other side is betraying them, that this betrayal voids their treaty and that Muslims should notify them of that consequence.

This is a proviso to the ruling of pardon in 5:13. In fact, we can without much labor, merge 5:13, 9:5, 9:29 and 8:58 in one consistent instruction,

"You are to show clemency to people even those cursed by God. For the people of the Book under your rule, you must require them to pay a defense tax. If they do not, fight them until they agree. For polytheists with whom you have a treaty, respect the term of the treaty. When the treaty ends, then fight those of them who fight you, unless they seek refuge with you or become Muslims. For others with whom you have a treaty, if you have good reason to believe that they are betraying you or about to, then notify them of that and that it is a breech of the treaty."

In refuting this claim, Dr. Mustafa Zayd, in his book النسخ في القرآن الكريم, volume 2, page 36 (item 746), quotes Ibn Katheer from his exegesis citing a quote by one of the righteous predecessors, which is so beautiful:
ما عاملت من عصى الله فيك بمثل أن تطيع الله فيه

Translation: Best way to treat whom disobeyed God regarding you, is to obey God regarding him!

See also: Did 9:29 or 3:159 abrogate 5:13?

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 Post subject: Who said what
PostPosted: 03 Jun 2010, 04:20 
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Joined: 04 May 2009, 16:10
Posts: 4520
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For:
Ibn Abbaas,
Qataada,
Makki,
Ibn Hazm Al-Andalusi,
Ibn Salaama,
Abu-Ali (Al-Jabaa'i?) (according to Aş-Şa`di).

Against:
Ibn Jareer (At-Tabari),
Ar-Raazi, Al-Qurtubi (according to Az-Zalmi),
An-Nahhaas,
Abdullah ibn Al-Husayn (according to Dr. Al-Husayni),
Dr. Mustafa Zayd,
Dr. Ahmad Hijaazi As-Saqqa,
Dr. Az-Zalmi.

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