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 Post subject: Types of abrogation
PostPosted: 11 Jan 2010, 16:19 
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This topic is to discuss the different types or classifications of abrogation as itemized by the scholars. This will help in understanding why they believed in abrogation and whether abrogation did happen.

I'll start by the what As-Suyooti wrote in his book, "Al-Itqaan fi `Uloom Al-Qur'aan":


الرابعة النسخ أقسام:
أحدها نسخ المأمور به قبل امتثاله وهو النسخ على الحقيقة كآية النجوى.
الثاني ما نسخ مما كان شرعا لمن قبلنا كآية شرع القصاص والدية أو كان أمر به أمرا جمليا كنسخ التوجه إلى بيت المقدس بالكعبة وصوم عاشوراء برمضان وإنما يسمى هذا نسخا تجوزا.
الثالث ما أمر به لسبب ثم يزول السبب كالأمر حين الضعف والقلة بالصبر والصفح ثم نسخ بإيجاب القتال وهذا في الحقيقة ليس نسخا بل هو من قسم المنسأ كما قال تعالى أو ننسأها فالمنسأ هو الأمر بالقتال إلى أن يقوى المسلمون وفي حال الضعف يكون الحكم وجوب الصبر على الأذى وبهذا يضعف ما لهج به كثيرون من أن الآية في ذلك منسوخة بآية السيف وليس كذلك بل هي من المنسأ بمعنى أن كل أمر ورد يجب امتثاله في وقت ما لعله يقتضي ذلك الحكم ثم ينتقل بانتقال تلك العلة إلى حكم آخر وليس بنسخ إنما النسخ الإزالة للحكم حتى لا يجوز امتثاله، وقال مكي ذكر جماعة أن ما ورد في الخطاب مشعر بالتوقيت والغاية مثل قوله في البقرة فاعفوا واصفحوا حتى يأتي الله بأمره محكم غير منسوخ لأنه مؤجل بأجل والمؤجل بأجل لا نسخ فيه.

الخامسة قال بعضهم سور القرآن باعتبار الناسخ والمنسوخ أقسام: قسم ليس فيه ناسخ ولا منسوخ وهو ثلاثة وأربعون سورة الفاتحة ويوسف ويس والحجرات والرحمن والحديد والصف والجمعة والتحريم والملك والحاقة ونوح والجن والمرسلات وعم والنازعات والانفطار وثلاث بعدها والفجر وما بعدها إلى آخر القرآن إلا التين والعصر والكافرين.
وقسم فيه الناسخ والمنسوخ وهي خمسة وعشرون البقرة وثلاث بعدها والحج والنور وتالياها والأحزاب وسبأ والمؤمن والشورى والذاريات والطور والواقعة والمجادلة والمزمل والمدثر وكورت والعصر.
وقسم فيه الناسخ فقط وهو ست الفتح والحشر والمنافقون والتغابن والطلاق والأعلى.
وقسم فيه المنسوخ فقط وهو الأربعون الباقية.
كذا قال وفيه نظر يعرف مما سيأتي.

السادسة قال مكي الناسخ أقسام:
فرض نسخ فرضا ولا يجوز العمل بالأول كنسخ الحبس للزواني بالحد،
وفرض نسخ فرضا ويجوز العمل بالأول كآية المصابرة،
وفرض نسخ ندبا كالقتال كان ندبا ثم صار فرضا،
وندب نسخ فرضا كقيام الليل نسخ بالقراءة في قوله فاقرءوا ما تيسر من القرآن.

السابعة النسخ في القرآن على ثلاثة أضرب:
أحدها ما نسخ تلاوته وحكمه معا. قالت عائشة كان فيما أنزل عشر رضعات معلومات فنسخن بخمس معلومات فتوفي رسول الله وهن مما يقرأ من القرآن رواه الشيخان. وقد تكلموا في قولها "وهن مما يقرأ"، فإن ظاهره بقاء التلاوة وليس كذلك. وأجيب بأن المراد قارب الوفاة أو أن التلاوة نسخت أيضا ولم يبلغ ذلك كل الناس إلا بعد وفاة رسول الله فتوفي وبعض الناس يقرؤها. وقال أبو موسى الأشعري نزلت ثم رفعت. وقال مكي هذا المثال فيه المنسوخ غير متلو والناسخ أيضا غير متلو ولا أعلم له نظيرا.انتهى.
الضرب الثاني: ما نسخ حكمه دون تلاوته. وهذا الضرب هو الذي فيه الكتب المؤلفة وهو على الحقيقة قليل جدا وإن أكثر الناس من تعداد الآيات فيه، فإن المحققين منهم كالقاضي أبي بكر بن العربي بين ذلك وأتقنه.
والذي أقوله أن الذي أورده المكثرون أقسام، قسم ليس من النسخ في شيء ولا من التخصيص ولا له بهما علاقة بوجه من الوجوه، وذلك مثل قوله تعالى "ومما رزقناهم ينفقون" و "أنفقوا مما رزقناكم" ونحو ذلك قالوا إنه منسوخ بآية الزكاة وليس كذلك بل هو باق. أما الأولى فإنها خبر في معرض الثناء عليهم بالإنفاق وذلك يصلح أن يفسر بالزكاة وبالإنفاق على الأهل وبالإنفاق في الأمور المندوبة كالإعانة والإضافة وليس في الآية ما يدل على أنها نفقة واجبة غير الزكاة، والآية الثانية يصلح حملها على الزكاة وقد فسرت بذلك. وكذا قوله تعالى "أليس الله بأحكم الحاكمين"، قيل إنها مما نسخ بآية السيف وليس كذلك لأنه تعالى أحكم الحاكمين أبدا لا يقبل هذا الكلام النسخ وإن كان معناه الأمر بالتفويض وترك المعاقبة. وقوله في البقرة "وقولوا للناس حسنا" عده بعضهم من المنسوخ بآية السيف، وقد غلطه ابن الحصار بأن الآية حكاية عما أخذه على بني إسرائيل من الميثاق فهو خبر لا نسخ فيه وقس على ذلك.
وقسم هو من قسم المخصوص لا من قسم المنسوخ وقد اعتنى ابن العربي بتحريره فأجاد، كقوله "إن الإنسان لفي خسر إلا الذين آمنوا" وقوله "والشعراء يتبعهم الغاوون إلا الذين آمنوا" وقوله "فاعفوا واصفحوا حتى يأتي الله بأمره"، وغير ذلك من الآيات التي خصت باستثناء أو غاية وقد أخطأ من أدخلها في المنسوخ. ومنه قوله "ولا تنكحوا المشركات حتى يؤمن" قيل أنه نسخ بقوله "والمحصنات من الذين أوتوا الكتاب" وإنما هو مخصوص به.
وقسم رفع ما كان عليه الأمر في الجاهلية أو في شرائع من قبلنا أو في أول الإسلام ولم ينزل في القرآن كإبطال نكاح نساء الآباء ومشروعية القصاص والدية وحصر الطلاق في الثلاث، وهذا إدخاله في قسم الناسخ قريب ولكن عدم إدخاله أقرب، وهو الذي رجحه مكي وغيره ووجهوه بأن ذلك لو عد في الناسخ لعد جميع القرآن منه إذ كله أو أكثره رافع لما كان عليه الكفار وأهل الكتاب.
قالوا وإنما حق الناسخ والمنسوخ أن تكون آية نسخت آية.انتهى.
نعم النوع الأخير منه وهو رافع ما كان في أول الإسلام إدخاله أوجه من القسمين قبله.

إذا عملت ذلك فقد خرج من الآيات التي أوردها المكثرون الجم الغفير مع آيات الصفح والعفو إن قلنا إن آية السيف لم تنسخها، وبقي مما يصلح لذلك عدد يسير.
الضرب الثالث: ما نسخ تلاوته دون حكمه، وقد أورد بعضهم فيه سؤالا وهو ما الحكمة في رفع التلاوة مع بقاء الحكم، وهلا بقيت التلاوة ليجتمع العمل بحكمها وثواب تلاوتها؟
وأجاب صاحب الفنون بأن ذلك ليظهر به مقدار طاعة هذه الأمة في المسارعة إلى بذل النفوس بطريق الظن من غير استفصال لطلب طريق مقطوع به فيسرعون بأيسر شيء كما سارع الخليل إلى ذبح ولده بمنام والمنام أدنى طريق الوحي
...
وقال حدثنا إسماعيل بن جعفر عن المبارك بن فضالة عن عاصم بن أبي النجود عن زر بن حبيش قال قال لي أبي بن كعب كأي تعد سورة الأحزاب؟ قلت اثنتين وسبعين آية أو ثلاثة وسبعين آية، قال إن كانت لتعدل سورة البقرة وإن كنا لنقرأ فيها آية الرجم. قلت وما آية الرجم قال إذا زنى الشيخ والشيخة فارجموهما البتة نكالا من الله والله عزيز حكيم. وقال حدثنا عبد الله بن صالح عن الليث عن خالد بن يزيد عن سعيد بن أبي هلال عن مروان بن عثمان عن أبي أمامة بن سهل أن خالته قالت لقد أقرأنا رسول الله آية الرجم الشيخ والشيخة فارجموهما البتة بما قضيا من اللذة


Brief translation:
  • Abrogating a command before it was complied with, such as 58:12. The problem with this example is that it was complied with. By Ali ibn Abi-Taalib, may God have been pleased with him.
  • Abrogating laws of prior peoples, such as Qisaas (2:178) and ransom (4:92). The problem with this is that we do not know what the laws of prior nations were. They altered their scriptures.
  • Abrogating commands not mentioned in the Quran, such as Qibla toward Jerusalem and fasting on the tenth of Muharram. To call this an abrogation is overreaching. There is no evidence that the initial practices were by order from God.
  • Abrogating a reason-bound command when the reason is gone, such as requiring endurance when Muslims are few and weak but mandating fighting when they are strong. By definition, contingent rulings roll with their contingencies. If Muslims become weak again, they again have to endure and not fight.
  • Abrogating a timed command when its allotted time has passed, such as 2:109. This is not abrogation either. It's similar to contingent rulings.
  • A mandate abrogating a mandate and the original mandate is no longer permitted, such as abrogating house arrest of fornicators by the penalty specified later. The problem with this example is that it's an interpretation error, see this topic for details.
  • A mandate abrogating a mandate but the original mandate remains permitted, such as the Musaabara verse, 8:65. By definition, if the original ruling remains permitted, then it was not abrogated!
  • A mandate abrogating a recommendation, such as mandating fighting after it was only suggested. Since it does not annul the previous ruling, it cannot be abrogation. The merit of this type of abrogation is that the implied allowance for not doing the previous ruling is now abrogated by the new mandate. Foundationsts (الأصوليون) have agreed that changing a default allowance does not constitute abrogation.
  • A recommendation abrogating a mandate, such as staying up at night praying. See this topic for refuting this example.
  • Verses which were abrogated both in recitation and ruling, such as what `Aa'isha narrated about the minimum number of sucklings that define a sucking sibling. Many scholars have discussed that.
  • Verses which were abrogated in ruling but not in recitation, and that is the subject of all the books about abrogation. Most of the verses mentioned were made specific later, not abrogated.
  • Verses which were abrogated in recitation but not in ruling, such as the verse which specified stoning of the elderly fornicators.

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 Post subject: Re: Types of abrogation
PostPosted: 12 Jan 2010, 05:57 
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How all of this can be derived logically from the abrogation verse is rather remarkable. Somewhere along the line, abrogation developed a life of its own.

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 Post subject: Re: Types of abrogation
PostPosted: 12 Jan 2010, 15:57 
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Of that list, these are the only definitions that I consider abrogation:
Linguistic wrote:
  • Abrogating a command before it was complied to, such as 58:12.
  • A mandate abrogating a mandate and the original mandate is no longer permitted, such as abrogating house arrest of fornicators by the penalty specified later.
  • A recommendation abrogating a mandate, such as staying up at night praying.
  • Verses which were abrogated in ruling but not in recitation, and that is the subject of all the books about abrogation. Most of the verses mentioned were made specific later, not abrogated.

Indeed, this particular case is by definition not an abrogation:
Linguistic wrote:
  • A mandate abrogating a mandate but the original mandate remains permitted, such as the "Musaabara" verse, 8:66/8:65.

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 Post subject: Re: Types of abrogation
PostPosted: 13 Jan 2010, 18:44 
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Linguistic wrote:
  • Abrogating a command before it was complied to, such as 58:12.

Regarding that type, Ibn Al-Jawzi wrote the following in his book, "Nawaasikh Al-Qur'aan",

فصل: واتفق العلماء على أن الحكم المأمور به إذا عمل به ثم نسخ بعد ذلك أن النسخ يقع صحيحا جائزا. واختلفوا هل يجوز نسخ الحكم قبل العمل به، فظاهر كلام أحمد جواز ذلك وهو اختيار عامة أصحابنا. وكان أبو الحسن التميمي يقول لا يجوز ذلك، وهو قول أصحاب أبي حنيفة. واحتج الأولون بأن الله تعالى أمر إبراهيم بذبح ولده ثم نسخ ذلك بالفداء قبل فعله، وأن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فرض عليه وعلى أمته ليلة المعراج خمسون صلاة ثم نسخ ذلك بخمس صلوات. ومن جهة المعنى فإن الأمر بالشيء يقع فيه تكليف الإيمان به والاعتقاد له ثم تكليف العزم على فعله في الزمان الذي عين له، ثم إذا فعل على الوجه المأمور به فجاز أن ينسخ قبل الأداء لأنه لم يفقد من لوازمه غير الفعل والنية نائبة عنه. واحتج من منع من ذلك بأن الله تعالى إنما يأمر عباده بالعبادة لكونها حسنة، فإذا أسقطها قبل فعلها خرجت عن كونها حسنة، وخروجها قبل الفعل يؤدي إلى البداء. هذا كلام مردود بما بينا من الإيمان والامتثال والعزم يكفي في تحصيل المقصود من التكليف بالعبادة

He reports that the majority agree with this, but that Abul-Hasan At-Tameemi and Abu-Haneefa's colleagues do not. Those who agree quote the example of the sacrifice of Abraham of his son which they said was abrogated by the sacrifice of a ram, and the mandate of fifty prayers during the ascension journey which was later abrogated to five only. Those who disagreed regarded such abrogation as a change of mind. Ibn Al-Jawzi disagrees with the argument of mind change.

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 Post subject: Re: Types of abrogation
PostPosted: 13 Jan 2010, 20:30 
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Linguistic wrote:
He reports that the majority agree with this, but that Abul-Hasan At-Tameemi and Abu-Haneefa's colleagues do not. Those who agree quote the example of the sacrifice of Abraham of his son which they said was abrogated by the sacrifice of a ram, and the mandate of fifty prayers during the ascension journey which was later abrogated to five only. Those who disagreed regarded such abrogation as a change of mind. Ibn Al-Jawzi disagrees with the argument of mind change.

As I get more into this, I find that enlarging the scope of what "abrogation" means and what it covers could well be the reason why there is a majority that agrees with abrogation. The question is agree with what exactly? If someone who agrees that 50 prayers were decreed and then reduced to 5 is considered to be in the majority that 'agrees with abrogation', then the majority will include almost everybody. This is why I am keen on addressing a single, specific question:

Are there verses in the text of the Quran that are abrogated verses?

I cannot ascertain what the majority opinion on this question is, since statements about majority opinions are invoked in a larger context than this question. The difference between something being abrogated that is no longer there and something being abrogated and still is there is a profound difference that does not seem to be given due weight or distinction.

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 Post subject: Re: Types of abrogation
PostPosted: 08 Feb 2010, 06:37 
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Linguistic wrote:
  • Verses which were abrogated both in recitation and ruling, such as what `Aa'isha narrated about the minimum number of sucklings that define a sucking sibling. Many scholars have discussed that.
  • Verses which were abrogated in ruling but not in recitation, and that is the subject of all the books about abrogation. Most of the verses mentioned were made specific later, not abrogated.
  • Verses which were abrogated in recitation but not in ruling, such as the verse which specified stoning of the elderly fornicators.

In volume 1 of his book, Dr. Mostafa Zaid considers only two of these types, the first and the second. He argues against the third type where the verse is gone but the ruling lives on, but he vigorously defends the second type, which the thesis of this project opposes. For some reason, he includes the case of `Aa'isha that you refer to in the first type as belonging to the third type and refutes its authenticity. The discussion is in items 383-392 on pages 270-276.

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 Post subject: Re: Types of abrogation
PostPosted: 18 Feb 2010, 09:14 
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Linguistic wrote:
  • Verses which were abrogated both in recitation and ruling, such as what `Aa'isha narrated about the minimum number of sucklings that define a sucking sibling. Many scholars have discussed that.
  • Verses which were abrogated in ruling but not in recitation, and that is the subject of all the books about abrogation. Most of the verses mentioned were made specific later, not abrogated.
  • Verses which were abrogated in recitation but not in ruling, such as the verse which specified stoning of the elderly fornicators.

Burton makes a blunt statement in the last paragraph of his book about these three types of abrogation. On page 208, he says (the PBUH added by me):

"That Muhammad (PBUH) accepted, or even heard of the theories of naskh in all their three-fold modality is certainly untrue, for we have exposed the origins of the theories in gradual developments arising from the attempts of the exegetes and usulis ..."

Notwithstanding that this is coming from a non-Muslim who at times showed some contempt, the phrasing of this conclusion is worth noting.

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 Post subject: Re: Types of abrogation
PostPosted: 22 Apr 2010, 00:23 
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In his book , Al-Jabri discusses the two types of abrogation outside the abrogation doctrine, which are abrogating the recitation but not the ruling and abrogating the recitation and the ruling, at length (pages 37-55). His approach is to take case by case, rather than refute the principle of a particular type of abrogation. For these two types, there are only two cases to refute (the stoning case attributed to Omar and the nursing case attributed to Aisha, may God be pleased with them).

My conclusion after reading this part of the book is that I would not touch the subject in our treatment, and would strictly stick to the abrogation doctrine and nothing else. The essence of the arguments in that part have to do with authenticity, authority, and verbal habits, and the discussion goes into very awkward territory that is highly argumentative and at times disrespectful. There is absolutely no way I can see that this can be settled in a crisp manner.

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 Post subject: Re: Types of abrogation
PostPosted: 23 Apr 2010, 04:08 
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Having gone in some depth into Al-Jabri's book, here is the picture that is starting to emerge. If we consider the abrogation views of the Hanafi school as one extreme, in the sense that any source in the religion can abrogate pretty much any other source, then Al-Jabri's view is the other extreme, where nothing can be abrogated by anything at all. To defend his view, Al-Jabri uses highly technical, highly philosophical, and pretty argumentative logic. I think he is as much a victim of bundling as the other extreme, where he just doesn't think that abrogation within the religion is a legitimate notion under any circumstances.

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 Post subject: Re: Types of abrogation
PostPosted: 27 Apr 2010, 22:39 
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Al-Jabri briefly states on pages 104-105 of his book an interesting remark. He says that in the early days of the revelation, the Prophet (PBUH) followed some aspects of previous books of revelation, and some of the scriptures that were followed were kept in written form by People of the Book at that time. Al-Jabri postulates that some early Muslims may have confused those with Quranic verses in their mind, hence later claimed that they were abrogated in recitation when they were not included in the text of the Quran. This obviously has no bearing on the abrogation doctrine since the 'verses' are gone, but I haven't read this remark before so I thought it was worth noting.

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